Vitamin d zglobovi

Vitamin D je rastvorljiv u mastima, prisutan je u masnoj ribi tuna, losos, sardine, jajima, mleku. Ovaj vitamin se formira u koži pod uticajem sunčevog zračenja.

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Jetra i bubrezi su zaduženi za prevođenje vitamina D iz hrane u aktivan oblik, koji ispoljava dejstvo u organizmu. Vitamin D se proizvodi u koži pod uticajem ultravioletnih zraka, ali boja kože i ten određuju u kojoj meri će se taj vitamin stvarati.

Svetloputim osobama je dovoljno i izlaganje lica i ruku jakoj sunčevoj svetlosti 45 minuta nedeljno da se stvore dovoljne količine vitamina D, dok tamnoputima treba i do 3 sata da se ispolji isti efekat. Vitamin D u obliku holekalciferola i ergokalciferola se upotrebljava u dnevnoj dozi od IU u obliku multivitaminskih preparata ili sa kalcijumom preparati za jačanje kostiju da obezbedi njegovo usvajanje.

Preporučena dnevna doza za zdrave, odrasle osobe je IU. U terapiji stanja izazvanih nedostatkom vitamina D koriste se i mnogo veće doze.

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Kod oštećenja jetre ili bubrega potrebno je uzimati vitamin D u obliku kalcitriola aktivan oblik vitamina D. Nedostatak vitamina D može nastati kao posledica nedovoljnog unosa vitamina D udruženog sa minimalnim izlaganjem sunčevoj svetlosti, kod oštećenja jetre i bubrega uneti oblici vitamina D ne mogu da se prevedu u biološki aktivni oblik — kalcitriol, kao posledica oboljenja digestivnog trakta, gde je smanjena apsorpcija hranljivih materija, kod alergije na mleko, laktozu i vegetarijanaca.

Bebama i deci u periodu rasta i razvoja za izgradnju kostiju, zatim osobama preko 50 godina smanjuje se sinteza vitamina D u koži, kao i osobama koje su malo izložene dnevnoj svetlosti. U slučaju dugotrajne prekomerne upotrebe suplemenata vitamina D može doći do pojave hipervitaminoze D. Simptomi hipervitaminoze D uključuju: jaku žeđ, metalni ukus u ustima, slab apetit, gubitak telesne težine, umor.

Hormonski preparati estrogena, izoniazid i tiazidni diuretici mogu uticati na povećanje nivoa vitamina D u krvi. Antacidi, kalcijumski blokatori, holestiramin, orlistat, kao i neki antikonvulzivi mogu smanjiti nivo vitamina D, tokom duže primene.

Vitamin D za jake kosti dec 9, Vitamini. Za šta se upotrebljava vitamin D? Kosti i zglobovi.

Vitamin d zglobovi

Sortiraj po. Kupi sada. The results showed that baseline serum 25 OH D levels were inversely associated with total number of CVD events including myocardial infarction, ischemic heart disease, heart failure, and stroke and mortality risk [ ].

Another large observational study that followed , adults from Denmark for 0—7 years found that levels of 25 OH D that were low about Other meta-analyses of prospective studies have found associations between lower vitamin D status measured by serum 25 OH D levels or vitamin D intakes and an increased risk of ischemic stroke, ischemic heart disease, myocardial infarction, and early death [ , ].

In contrast to the observational studies, clinical trials have provided little support for the hypothesis that supplemental vitamin D reduces the risk of CVD or CVD mortality.

Vitamin d zglobovi

For example, a 3-year trial in New Zealand randomized 5, adults mean age Vitamin D supplementation had no effect on the incidence rate of myocardial infarction, angina, heart failure, arrhythmia, arteriosclerosis, stroke, venous thrombosis, or death from CVD. Similarly, the VITAL clinical trial described above found that vitamin D supplements did not significantly decrease rates of heart attacks, strokes, coronary revascularization, or deaths from cardiovascular causes [ 93 ].

High serum cholesterol levels and hypertension are two of the main risk factors for CVD. The data on supplemental vitamin D and cholesterol levels are mixed, as shown in one meta-analysis of 41 clinical trials in a total of 3, participants mean age 55 years. The results of this analysis showed that 0.

Vitamin d zglobovi

Studies of the effects of vitamin D supplements on hypertension have also had mixed findings. In contrast, another meta-analysis of 30 clinical trials in 4, participants mean age Another meta-analysis of genetic studies in , participants primarily adults found that a low vitamin D status increased blood pressure and hypertension risk in people with genetic variants associated with low endogenous production of 25 OH D [ ]. Depression Vitamin D is involved in various brain processes, and vitamin D receptors are present on neurons and glia in areas of the brain thought to be involved in the pathophysiology of depression [ ].

A systematic review and meta-analysis of 14 observational studies that included a total of 31, adults mean age ranging from Clinical trials, however, do not support these findings. For example, a meta-analysis of 9 trials with a total of 4, adult participants diagnosed with depression or depressive symptoms found no significant reduction in symptoms after supplementation with vitamin D [ ].

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They also had different study durations 5 days to 5 years, mean participant ages range, 22 years to 75 years, and baseline 25 OH D levels; furthermore, some but not all studies administered concurrent antidepressant medications. Three trials conducted since that meta-analysis also found no effect of vitamin D supplementation on depressive symptoms.

Most participants had minimal or mild depression, had a low mean baseline 25 OH level of The groups showed no significant differences in the incidence and recurrent rates of depression, clinically relevant depressive symptoms, or changes in mood scores. Overall, clinical trials did not find that vitamin D supplements helped prevent or treat depressive symptoms or mild depression, especially in middle-aged to older adults who were not taking prescription antidepressants.

No studies have evaluated whether vitamin D supplements may benefit individuals under medical care for clinical depression who have low or deficient 25 OH D levels and are taking antidepressant medication.

Multiple sclerosis MS is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system that damages the myelin sheath surrounding and protecting nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord. This damage hinders or blocks messages between the brain and body, leading to clinical features, such as vision loss, motor weakness, spasticity, ataxia, tremor, sensory loss, and cognitive impairment [ , ]. Some people with MS eventually lose the ability to write, speak, or walk.

The geographical distribution of MS around the world is unequal. Few people near the equator develop the disease, whereas the prevalence is higher further north and south. This uneven distri.